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电源的选择、应用与安装

2019-08-05

There are some specific aspects of sign ballasts that bear mentioning. UL concerns, sign ballast selection and application and installation factors are discussed below.
标识电源的一些具体方面值得一提,电源作为整个标识系统的动力核心,对其他硬件也是第一层保护,如果遇到劣质的产品,在电流不稳定的情况下,会对系统造成不可逆的损害,下面我们就讨论一下关于标识电源的选择、应用与安装。

UL Designations
UL认证

Sign ballasts incorporate a number of symbols and notations on their label that are easily recognized. There may be markings on the label that are not self-explanatory, such as Class “P”, Type 2 and HL. These are United Laboratories (UL) designations that indicate that the ballast meets certain industry requirements.
标识电源在其表面有易于识别的参数。标签上有绝对明显的标记,例如P级,Ⅱ和HL级。 这些是联合实验室(UL)的名称,表明电源符合行业要求。

For the past few years, sign ballasts have been equipped with UL class “P” thermal protection. Class “P” is a requirement of UL standard 2161. Ballasts labeled with class “P” use an internal device that disconnects the ballast from the supply line if the internal temperature of the ballast coils reaches 105 degrees centigrade. Once the ballast cools down, the device automatically resets and normal operation resumes. If ballast is thermal cycling (repeatedly turning on and off as it heats up), it is due to excessive heat. The trigger could be high voltage fluctuations, loose ballast mounting, ballast approaching end of life or other causes.
在过去的几年里,标识电源已经配备了UL P级热保护。P级是UL标准2161的要求。标有P级的电源使用一种内部装置,当电源线圈的内部温度达到105摄氏度时,该装置将电源与供应管路断开。电源冷却后,设备自动复位,恢复正常运行。如果电源是热循环(当它加热时反复打开和关闭),这是由于过热。触发可能是高压波动、电源安装松动、电源接近使用寿命或其他原因。

Sign ballasts are generally manufactured using “UL Type 2 Outdoor” cans. A Type 2 can has a special coating to resist rust. The Type 1 can, used for general lighting applications, does not. Type 2 cans may be used in plastic sign applications without putting the ballast in a separate metal enclosure. “Type 2” does not mean weatherproof, but they do provide some moisture resistance.
标识电源一般采用ULⅡ级电源外壳制造。Ⅱ级电源有一种特殊的防锈涂层,而用于一般照明应用的Ⅰ类电源则不是。Ⅰ类电源可用于塑料标识应用,无需将电源放在单独的金属外壳中。Ⅱ级电源并不完全防水,但它们确实提供了一些防潮功能。

Another UL marking on many sign ballasts is “HL”. The HL notation means that the ballast has no sparking components exposed to the air and is suitable for use in hazardous locations. “HL” is a typical requirement in the petroleum industry. All sign ballasts manufactured by Universal Lighting Technologies are UL class “P”, Type 2 and HL listed.
许多标识电源上的另一个UL标记是HL。HL表示法是指电源没有暴露在空气中的火花部件,适合在危险场所使用。HL是石油工业的一个典型要求。通用照明技术生产的所有标识电源均为UL P级、Ⅱ级和HL级。

 

Choosing the Correct Sign Ballast
选择正确的电源

Selecting the proper sign ballast for your plastic sign application should be a relatively easy task. The normal sign ballast is rated for 120-volt input and operates 800 mA high output (HO) T12 lamps. Sign ballasts also are available for slim-line lamps or other voltages such as 277, however the vast majority of the installations are 120 volt HO. Typically lamps are operated in series (six lamp ballasts are two three-lamp series circuits, in parallel). With series wiring, the lamps are part of the circuit, so if one lamp fails, none of the lamps on that circuit remain lit. In signs using multiple ballasts, adjacent lamps will often be operated by different ballasts to avoid a large dark spot should one lamp fail.
为您的塑料标识应用选择合适的标识电源应该是一项非常容易的任务。正常的标识电源额定输入120伏,运行800毫安高输出(HO) T12灯泡。标识电源也可用于超薄线路灯或其他电压,如277,但绝大多数安装是120伏的HO。通常灯是串联工作的(六个灯电源是两个三灯串联电路并联)。串联布线时,灯具是电路的一部分,所以如果一盏灯坏了,该电路上的所有灯都不会亮。在使用多个电源的标识中,相邻的灯经常会被不同电源操作,以避免一盏灯坏了会产生影响。

The variables used to select the proper ballast are the number of lamps being operated and the total lamp footage. For example, the Universal Lighting Technologies’ Sign aÔ sign ballast 256-448-800 will operate any one-, two-, three- or four-lamp combination of T12 800 mA lamps covering 8 (minimum) to 16 feet (maximum) total lamp footage.
选择合适的电源取决于你使用灯的数量与总长度,例如,照明技术公司 Sign aÔ sign的电源256-448-800可用于任何一盏、两盏、三盏或四盏T12 800 mA灯的组合,最小覆盖8英尺,最大16覆盖英尺。

Economies of scale and application are important in selecting the proper sign ballast. Sign ballasts have wide application ranges that often overlap. For example, Universal Lighting offers five different ballasts that operate two four-foot lamps. However, the most economical choice is the SignaÔ sign ballast 256-248-800, which is rated for any one or two lamp combinations of T12 800 mA lamps with total lamp footage of 3 (minimum) to 8 feet (maximum) lamp coverage. As a general rule, the most economical choice is to select the ballast where the actual application matches the maximum limits of the ballast. A ballast for one or two-lamps is generally less expensive than a ballast for one-, two-, three- or four-lamps, and a ballast that operates up to 16 feet (maximum) is less expensive than one that operates up to 24 feet. Choose the closest match as long as you don’t exceed the published lamp footage range.
在选择合适的电源时,经济性和实用性是很重要的。标识电源有广泛的应用范围。例如,通用照明提供了五种不同的电源,可以控制两盏四英尺高的灯。一般来说,
经济的选择是选择实际应用与电源最大极限相匹配的电源。 用于一盏灯或两盏灯的电源通常比用于单灯,双灯,三灯或四灯的电源便宜,最高运行16英尺的电源比最高运行24英尺的电源便宜。在灯管长度范围内选择最合适的电源。

The lowest cost ballast option may not always be the most practical. Using sign ballasts that operate many applications can simplify inventory needs and reduce costs. As long as the actual application is within the ballast’s published range, you can be confident with its performance. If the lamp application is listed on the ballast label, then it has met and passed all of the UL testing requirements.
成本最低的电源选项可能并不是最实用的。使用操作许多应用程序的标识电源可以简化库存需求并降低成本。只要实际应用在电源的公布范围内,您就可以放心的使用它。如果灯的应用被列在电源的标签上,那么它已经满足并通过了UL的所有测试要求。

Do not experiment by using a ballast that you happen to have in stock in an application slightly outside of the performance range. The sign could perform fine in the shop, however you’re asking for trouble in the field. Using a non-listed combination of lamps will void the UL coverage. Ballast overheating, excessive lamp end blackening, hard starting, short lamp life or short ballast life are a few of the possible field problems caused by using a ballast that is not rated for the application. Typical service calls for a plastic sign cost several hundred dollars. Saving a few dollars by using a “close enough” ballast is not wise in the long run.
不要在稍微超出性能范围的应用中使用碰巧有库存的电源进行试验。使用非上市组合的灯具将使UL覆盖范围失效。电源过热、灯头过度发黑、启动困难、灯管寿命短或电源寿命短是使用不符合应用要求的电源可能导致的一些问题。典型的塑料标识服务收费为几百美元。从长远来看,使用“差不多”的电源节省几美元是不明智的。


Application and Installation Factors
应用及安装

Temperature has a critical impact on the performance of a sign. Light output is a factor of the mercury vapor pressure inside the bulb. The colder the lamp is, the lower the light output. Cold lamps are also more difficult to start. Magnetic sign ballasts are rated for reliable starting down to minus 20 degrees Fahrenheit. At temperatures below that, it can be difficult to start the lamps.
温度对标识的性能有至关重要的影响,光输出是灯泡内汞蒸汽压力的原因。灯越冷,输出的光就越低,灯也更难启动。磁性标识电源的额定可靠的开始下降到零下20华氏度,在低于这个温度时,要启动电灯可能会很困难。

Another factor that can cause erratic starting is a poor ground. More importantly, grounding provides added safety. Sign ballasts are designed under UL standards for protection from shock hazard, however certain conditions of ballast failure at end-of-life can result in shorts. An ungrounded sign is a potential hazard and can give misleading symptoms when looking for sign faults. Always disconnect the power before servicing a sign. Service work should only be performed by qualified personnel and in compliance with OSHA guidelines for safe electrical practices.
另一个导致灯管不稳定的因素是场地不好。更重要的是,接地提供了额外的安全。标识电源是按照美国UL标准设计的,用于防止冲击危险,但在使用寿命结束时,电源出现某些故障,可能导致短路。不接地的标识是一个潜在的危险,当寻找标识故障时可能会给出误导的症状。在维修标识之前,一定要断开电源。服务工作应仅由合格人员执行,并符合OSHA的安全电气操作指南。

The two main enemies of the ballast are heat and moisture. The ballast will generate heat during operation and by design should not exceed 90 degrees centigrade at the hottest spot on the ballast case. Higher operating temperatures will shorten the ballast life and could result in thermal cycling. To maintain normal operating temperatures, the ballast should be mounted against a flat surface of heavy gauge metal, such as a structural part of the sign, and it should be mounted far away from other sources of heat, such as other ballasts and lamps. A lamp will generate about three-fourths of the heat in a plastic sign. The ends of the lamp are the hottest part, so the ballast should be mounted as far away from the lamp ends as possible. To help reduce moisture the sign should be well vented without allowing water to enter.
电源的两个主要敌人是热量和湿气。 电源在运行期间会产生热量,并且设计在电源箱的最热点处不应超过90摄氏度。 较高的工作温度会缩短电源寿命,并可能导致热循环。为了保持正常的工作温度,电源应安装在重型金属的平面上,例如标识的结构部分,并且应安装在远离其他热源的地方,例如其他电源和灯。灯在塑料标识中产生大约四分之三的热量,灯的末端是最热的部分,因此电源应安装在尽可能远离灯端的位置。为了减少水分,标识应及时通风,避免水气进入。

High or low line voltage can have a major impact on the life of the sign components. Low voltage does not generally impact a ballast life, yet it can result in inadequate filament heating during starting, shortening lamp life. High line voltage can result in shortened life for both the ballast and the lamps. It is recommended that corrective measures be taken if the voltage is less than 110 or higher than 125 on a nominal 120 volt circuit.
高或低的线路电压会对标识元件的寿命产生重大影响。低压一般不会影响电源的使用寿命,但它会导致启动时灯丝加热不足,缩短灯管的使用寿命。高电压会导致电源和灯具的寿命缩短。如果标称120伏电路的电压低于110或高于125,建议采取措施,及时修正。

That’s a quick thumbnail sketch of what a sign ballast is, and some application issues that might arise. It is important to recognize that the sign industry and its governing body are anything but static. Restrictions on the size of signs are commonplace and limits on energy consumption are starting to be enacted. Overall, the industry is changing with the times. Over the last few years, there has been a shift in product mix towards the smaller ratings and an increased interest in the use of alternative lamps, such as the T8 high output. Electronic sign ballasts also are growing in popularity. These developing products show a great deal of promise and will become more important as our industry and the application installation challenges continue to evolve.
重要的是要认识到标识行业及其管理机构绝不是摆设,对标识大大小小的限制是非常正确的,现在对能源消耗的限制也开始实施。总的来说,这个行业是与时俱进的。在过去的几年里,产品结构发生了变化,以较小的评级和增加了对使用替代灯的兴趣,如T8高输出。电子电源也越来越受欢迎。这些正在开发的产品显示出很大的潜力,并且随着我们的行业和应用程序安装挑战的不断发展,这些产品将变得更加重要。


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