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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 > 2019年3月杂志_CNC切割材料大解析

2019年3月杂志_CNC切割材料大解析

2019-03-01

Sign shops have multitudes of options when selecting a material for a sign to be routed on a CNC machine, and there’s almost always a perfect substrate for the job they want to do.

标识公司在选择要在数控机床上加工的标识材料时有很多选择,总有一个完美的材料来符合工作要求。


“CNC routers can cut through a wide variety of materials,” says Simona Firth, product manager for Brett Martin Plastic Sheets in Antrim, Northern Ireland. “Determining the best suitable materials for a sign includes features such as durability, dimensions, location and last, but not least, the customer requirements.”

北爱尔兰安特里姆(Antrim)布雷特•马丁(Brett Martin)塑料板公司的产品经理西莫纳•弗斯(Simona Firth)表示:“CNC切割机可以切割各种各样的材料,为了确定最合适标识的材料,我们需要考虑材料的耐久性、尺寸以及最后呈现的效果。”


The most common materials that sign shops use for indoor and outdoor signs include traditional wood and plastics, metal, urethane in high or medium density, and composites.

用于室内和室外标识的最常见的标识材料包括传统的木材、塑料、金属、高密度或中等密度的聚氨酯以及复合材料。

The Buying Decision

如何做出正确的购买决策

How do sign shops know which one of these or others to recommend to their customers wanting outdoor signage, indoor signage or a temporary sign?

标识公司如何知道应该向客户推荐户外标识、室内标识还是临时标识的这些或其他标识中的哪一个? 


“The correct buying decision needs to be suitability for use first, then availability and price,” says Gary Scott, senior technical field representative who oversees the technical services department for Statesville, North Carolina-based 3A Composites USA at the Benton, Kentucky, site where the company manufactures some of its composite materials.

加里•斯科特(Gary Scott)说:“正确的购买决策需要首先是标识的适用性,然后是可用性和价格。”斯科特是北卡罗来纳州斯泰兹维尔美国3A复合材料(3A Composites USA)公司技术服务部的高级技术代表,该公司在肯塔基州本顿生产复合材料。 


The buying decision is based on meeting the project requirements, application of the sign, lifespan of the material and the sign’s shape, whether straight, curved or routed, Scott says. It’s also based on location whether indoors or outdoors, and if indoors on meeting fire restrictions or codes, he says.

斯科特说:“购买决策是基于满足项目要求、标识的应用、材料的使用寿命和标识的形状(无论是直的、弯的还是弯曲的)。这还取决于室内或室外的位置,以及室内是否符合防火规定。”


“Many factors contribute to this decision including aesthetic and decorative elements, structural requirements, environmental exposure and overall process-ability. Another factor is in-house capability, such as available router bits and their composition,” says Kevin Duffy, vice-president of sales and marketing for Vycom Corp. in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

宾夕法尼亚州斯克兰顿Vycom集团(Vycom Corp)销售和营销副总裁凯文•达菲(Kevin Duffy)说:“许多因素促成了这一决定,包括装饰元素的美学、结构要求、环境和标识加工能力。另一个因素是公司硬件设备,比如可用的切割机等装置。”


Sign shops, as they consider these factors, also need to cater to what the customer wants, Duffy says.

达菲说:“标识公司在考虑这些因素时,也需要迎合顾客的需求。”


“Typically, the process begins with the overall desired look and feel, then the shop will tackle the issue of material specification,” Duffy says.

达菲说:“通常情况下,这一过程是从整体需要的外观开始的,然后标识公司就会解决材料规格的问题。”


Sign shops have many materials they can suggest to the customer from plastic to metal.

从塑料到金属,标识公司有很多材料可以向顾客推荐。


Initially, customers may start off with inexpensive materials to save on costs but find out the sign will not work for the location or meet the requirements, Scott says. For instance, a long-term outdoor sign needs to withstand weather conditions and be able to last decades without the color or paint fading, he says.

斯科特说:“起初,顾客可能会从便宜的材料入手,以节省成本,但后来发现这种标识在当地并不适用,也不符合要求。举例说,一个长期的户外标识需要经受住天气条件的考验,并且能够在不褪色或油漆褪色的情况下使用数十年,在这种情况下使用优质价高的材料会比便宜的材料更省心省力。” 

Aluminum Composites

铝复合材料

Good materials for outdoor signs needing long-term use include plywood, aluminum composites and polycarbonate.

适合长期使用的户外标识的材料包括胶合板,铝复合材料和聚碳酸酯。


A long-term material is 3A Composites’ Alucobond, an aluminum composite used in such signage applications as a car dealership or a sporting arena, whereas a sign for the typical business can last five to 10 years, since many businesses change locations or close, Scott says.

斯科特说:“被大众所公认的适合长期使用的材料是3A铝复合材料,它一般用于制作汽车经销商或运动场等地的标识,一般使用这种材料的标识可以持续使用5到10年。”


3A Composites’ less expensive version is Dibond, an aluminum composite with thinner aluminum skins and more ideal for a 5- to 10-year application.

3A复合材料较便宜的版本是Dibond,这是一种铝合金复合材料,具有更薄的铝皮,也适合5到10年的应用。


Both materials are lightweight and flat and can be routed into three-dimensional structures. They also do not distort with changes in temperature, as does solid aluminum, which can become wavy in appearance.

这两种材料都是轻质且扁平的,可以布置成三维结构。它们也不会随着温度的变化而变形,就像固体铝那样,它会在外观上呈现波浪状。 


To avoid the material distortions, aluminum can be thickened but that adds cost and weight to the sign, making aluminum composites a preferable option, Scott says.

斯科特说:“为了避免材料扭曲,铝可以加厚,但这增加了成本和材料的重量,不过也使铝复合材料成为一个更好的选择。”


“Aluminum has tensions inside it. That’s why it’s flat,” Scott says. “When the temperature changes, the tensions will relieve themselves and the aluminum will distort. … Aluminum composites are flat and stay flat for years and years.”

“铝内部有张力支撑,这就是为什么它是平的。”斯科特说,“当温度变化时,张力就会减弱,铝就会变形。而铝变复合材料,不易受温度影响,可以保持多年平整不易变形。”

Plastics

塑料

Plastics present another good option for signage because it can be fabricated with ease and decorated using numerous processes, Duffy says. Plastics also won’t corrode or rot and have an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, he says.

达菲说:“塑料是标识材料的另一个好选择,因为它可以轻松制造并使用多种工艺进行装饰。塑料不会腐蚀或腐烂,并且具有优异的强度重量比。”


“For outdoor signage that will weather the elements, UV-stable plastic materials provide excellent options for low- to no maintenance solutions,” Duffy says. “When environmental exposure is less of a concern, such as with interior signage, a wider variety of substrates can be utilized with confidence. For temporary signage, customers usually balance aesthetic requirements with overall system cost. Plastics can be an excellent choice for all of these applications.”

达菲说:“对于要求耐候性强的户外标识,稳定的uv塑料材料为低维护或无维护方案提供了极好的选择。当环境影响不是很严重时,可以有更多的标识材料选择,比如室内标识。对于暂时使用的标识,客户通常会在美学要求和系统总体成本之间进行权衡,塑料材料是可以满足这两个要求的最佳选择。”


Plastics come in many types and configurations and can be tuned to meet specific needs, Duffy says.“For example, if the installation calls for structural or extreme environmental requirements, sign companies would generally select a more robust material that could be harder to process.” 

达菲说:“塑料有多种类型和配置,可以根据具体需要进行调整。例如,如果安装要求结构或极端的环境要求,标识公司通常会选择一种更坚固的材料,不过这种材料可能更难加工。”

Foamed PVC

发泡PVC材质

A type of plastic known as foamed PVC, or poly vinyl chloride, has the properties of wood but requires less maintenance, Scott says. Wood has to be painted or sealed on a regular basis to keep it from rotting and has a shorter lifespan than other materials, though it is easily available and inexpensive, he says.

斯科特说:“一种被称为发泡聚氯乙烯(PVC))的塑料具有木材的特性,但需要定期维护。木材必须定期涂漆或密封,以防止腐烂,而且使用寿命比其他材料短,不过这种材料很容易买到,价格也不贵。”


3A Composites carries foamed PVC in its Sintra and e-pvc lines. Sintra is waterproof, does not rot and can be routed or heat formed into shape and painted with solvent-based or auto paints, particularly for outdoor uses. The less expensive version is e-pvc, which is of a lower density but has many of the same properties as Sintra. E-pvc can be used for short- and medium-term indoor and outdoor applications and long-term interior applications.

3A复合材料Sintra(材料名)和e-pvc(材料名)含有发泡聚氯乙烯。Sintra是防水的,不会腐烂,可以通过管道或加热成型,涂上溶剂型或汽车漆,特别适用于户外。较便宜的是e-pvc,密度较低,但与Sintra有许多相同的性能。E-pvc可用于中短期室外及长期室内应用。 


Another material option for signage is paper-faced foam board.  3A Composites’ product is Fome-cor, which can be used for short- to medium-term interior applications but is not routable because of the paper, which will tear. Instead, the material is cut with a knife or digital cutter.

标识的另一种材料选择是纸面发泡板。3A复合材料的产品是Fome-cor,该产品可用于中短期的室内应用,普通的纸质材料易撕裂,所以不可切割,但纸面发泡板这种材料是可以用刀或数字切割机切割的。 


More durable versions of foam board, which 3A Composites carries, are the Gatorfoam and Gatorplast product lines. Gatorfoam is a strong, lightweight material with liners or facers made out of wood-based veneer.

3A复合材料的发泡板更耐用的版本是佳得乐发泡板系列。佳得乐发泡板是一种强度高、重量轻的材料,内衬和饰面由人造板制成。 


“It’s extremely light, but if you wrap on it with your knuckles, it sounds like wood,” Scott says. “Its best properties are its strength, durability … and ability to be routed, which you can’t do with a paper-faced product.”

“它非常轻,但如果你用指关节敲击它,声音听起来就像木头。”斯科特说,“它最好的特质就是它的强度、耐久性以及容易切割,这是纸质材料无法做到的。” 


3A Composites’ lower-cost version of durable foam board is Gatorplast. It is made with solid styrene lines but is more expensive than Fome-cor. 

3A复合材料的低成本版耐久发泡板是佳得乐全塑料板,它是用实心的苯乙烯线制成的,但比Fome-cor(一种挤压聚苯乙烯发泡材料)贵得多。


“It’s lightweight and easy to work with, but it also has the ability to be routed to shape,” Scott says. “Gatorplast can be folded but Gatorfoam can’t due to wood fiber veneer.”

斯科特说:“它重量轻,方便操作,能被切割机切割,它也可以折叠,但贴了木纤维贴面之后,佳得乐发泡塑料板就不能折叠了。”


PVC foam presents a good edge finish and is easy to print and engrave, while polycarbonate, another type of plastic, offers strength and great machining characteristics, Firth says. Alternatively, polyester terephthalate global modified, or PETG, is known for being easy to thermoform for 3D signage and can be digitally printed, he says. Both PC and PETG are good for illuminated signage because they provide transparency and luminosity, he says.

弗斯表示,PVC发泡具有良好的边缘光洁度,易于印刷和雕刻,而聚碳酸酯是另一种类型的塑料,具有很强的强度和良好的加工特性。另外,聚酯对苯二甲酸酯(PETG)是众所周知的易于热成型的3D标识,可以进行数字印刷,PC和PETG都适用于照明标识,因为它们提供良好透明度和亮度。


“For illuminated signage, the transparency of PC and PETG is important, and Marpet and Marlon come with a gloss or anti-reflective finish to suit a variety of applications,” Firth says.

“对于照明标识来说,PC和PETG的透明度是很重要的,我们的顾客马皮特和马龙都采用了一种既有光泽又抗反射的材料来适应各种标识应用。”弗斯说。 

High Density Urethane

高密度聚氨酯

For signs with outdoor applications and that need to be dimensional, HDU is typically a good option, says Brad Burnett, HDU sales manager of DUNA-USA Inc. in Baytown, Texas.

德克萨斯州贝敦市(Baytown, Texas)的邓纳公司(DUNA-USA Inc)的HDU销售经理布雷德•伯内特(Brad Burnett)说:“户外标识对材料尺寸有一定的要求,所以HDU通常是一个不错的选择。” 


“It’s usually a cross between cost and availability and the visual requirements the customer is trying to achieve,” Burnett says.

“这通常是成本、可用性以及客户试图达到的视觉要求之间的交叉。”伯内特说。


HDU is closed-cell and cannot absorb water, and it’s grain-free and available in large sheet sizes and multiple thicknesses, Burnett says. The size options eliminate some of the labor of planning and joining that is seen with a traditional wood substrate, he says.

伯内特说:“HDU是一种具有高强度、抗撕裂、耐磨等特性的高分子材料,,有大尺寸和多种厚度可供选择,自由的尺寸选择消除了传统木质基材的连接工作。”


DUNA-USA’s most popular product for interior and exterior signage is the 15lb high density Corafoam HDU, a polyurethane substrate that provides a good balance of strength, surface smoothness and ability to hold detail, Burnett says. For outdoor signage, 20lb Corafoam may be a better option for its increased durability and surface smoothness, while for interior signage, 10lb Corafoam can reduce cost and still hold detail and be painted, he says.

邓纳公司最受欢迎的内部和外部标识产品是15磅高密度Corafoam HDU,这是一种聚氨酯基材,在强度,表面光滑度和保持细节的能力之间的良好平衡。20磅的Corafoam能为户外标识提高耐用性和表面光滑度,而对于室内标识来说,10磅Corafoam可以降低成本,保持产品细节和外观。


“Corafoam HDU is known for its grain-free consistency and is among the easiest materials to cut on a CNC machine with many people comparing it to cutting a soft wood, or describing it as ‘cutting like butter,’” Burnett says.

伯内特说:“Corafoam HDU以无颗粒著称,是数控切割机上最容易切割的材料之一,许多人把它比作切割软木材,或者把它描述为‘像切割黄油一样柔软’。” 


Routing the Materials

切割钻头的选择

Standard high-speed steel cutting bits can be used to cut Corafoam HDU, but many of DUNA-USA’s customers say that Carbide tools last longer, Burnett says. For the 15lb Corafoam, the 52-707 cutting bit is the best performer, running at 19,350 RPM and 180 inches per minute, he says.

伯内特说:“标准的高速钢切削钻头可以用来切割Corafoam HDU,但是许多邓纳公司的客户说硬质合金刀具使用寿命更长。对于15磅重的Corafoam来说, 52-707钻头的性能最好,它的转速为19350转,每分钟180英寸。” 


“At this speed, they achieved what is known as ‘optimal chip load,’ that is the fastest speed of cutting material, while still producing a clean edge and producing chips instead of dust,” Burnett says.

伯内特说:“在这个速度下,他们实现了所谓的‘最佳芯片负载’,这是切割材料的最快速度,同时仍能产生干净的边缘,达到无尘环境。” 


For plastics like the Vycom Celtec PVC, the material can be routed using multi-fluted carbide bits on standard woodworking equipment, Duffy says.

达菲说:“对于像Vycom Celtec PVC这样的塑料,这种材料可以使用标准木工设备上的多槽硬质合金钻头进行加工。”


“Processing speeds are dependent on the material thickness and desired edge finish.” he says.

“加工速度取决于材料的厚度和边缘处理。”他说。


CNC routers can cut through a variety of other materials, such as aluminum composites, PVC foam, sandwich materials and wood, Firth says. Foam, PETg and PC are easier to cut than aluminum or other metals, he says.

费斯说:“数控切割机可以切割各种材料,如铝复合材料、PVC发泡塑料、夹层材料和木材。发泡板、PETG和PC比铝或其他金属更容易切割。”


Brett Martin’s Marlon Polycarbonate, Marpet PET and Foamalux Foam PVC can be cut in intricate forms, Firth says.

弗斯说:“布雷特·马丁(Brett Martin)设计的马龙聚碳酸酯(Marlon Polycarbonate,)、马龙PET(Marpet PET)和发泡聚氯乙烯(Foamalux Foam PVC)可以被切割成复杂的形状。”


“Knife tools can be used successfully for thinner gauges and simpler shapes. Router tools can be used for thicker gauges and complex shapes,” Firth says.

“刀具用于更薄的材料和更简单的形状,切割机可以用于更厚的材料和复杂的形状。”弗斯说。


For Marpet-g FS PETg, routing can produce a smooth edge, best with sharp, straight or two-flute carbide-tipped bits designed for plastics.

对于Marpet-g FS PETg来说,切割机可以切割成光滑的边缘,最好使用专门为塑料设计的尖锐或双槽硬质合金钻头。 


“HSS double-edged cutters are preferred, although standard bits can be used successfully. For thinner materials straight fluted cutters are preferred,” Firth says.

“HSS双刃刀具是首选,虽然标准钻头也能使用,但对于较薄的材料,直槽刀具是首选。”费斯说。

DUNA-USA in Baytown, Texas, provided the materials for a 15lb Corafoam HDU sign for Munn Architecture that is CNC-routed. The sign was produced by House of Signs and in Frisco, Colorado. “It’s a great example of HDU being used in an area with harsh weather, because it is so durable,” says Brad Burnett, HDU sales manager of DUNA-USA.

位于德克萨斯州贝敦的邓纳公司为芒恩建筑公司提供了一个15磅重的Corafoam HDU标识,该标识是CNC切割机切割的,由科罗拉多州弗里斯科的标识之家制作公司完成制作的。邓纳公司的HDU销售经理布拉德•伯内特(Brad Burnett)表示:“这是HDU在恶劣天气地区使用的一个很好的例子,因为它非常耐用。”


3A Composites’ Dibond DCM is digitally printed, then bolted into a framework for an interior exhibition at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. (Artwork and photo by Ian Kirkpatrick)

数码打印的3A复合材料被固定在一个框内,在牛津大学自然历史博物馆(Oxford University Museum of Natural History)进行室内展览。


The Vycom Celtec PVC material can be easily routed using multi-fluted carbide bits on standard woodworking equipment.

像Vycom Celtec PVC这样的塑料,这种材料可以使用标准木工设备上的多槽硬质合金钻头进行加工。


Gatorplast is an all plastic sheet with extruded polystyrene foam core laminated on both sides with a 15-mil high-impact polystyrene cap sheet with a special matte finish. Gatorplast board is ideal for painted or screen printed displays, photo mounting and sign making. This matte finish is perfect for high-quality screen printing with any finish from flat to gloss. Both cut-to-shape lettering and vinyl lettering may be applied to Gatorplast, then removed or repositioned without incurring damage to this graphic arts board’s tough, plastic surface. Gatorplast can be cut with ease in a variety of ways, including table saw, razor knife, or guillotine. Detailed shapes and contours can be added with a router.  

佳得宝是一种全塑料板,两边都有挤压聚苯乙烯发泡芯层压,带有15毫升高冲击聚苯乙烯板,表面经过特殊的亚光处理。佳得宝板是理想的图像打印显示、照片框架和标识制作的材料。这种光洁度非常适合高质量的丝网印刷,乙烯基刻字也不会损害坚韧的塑料表面。佳得宝板可以通过多种方式轻松切割,例如台式锯、刀具或切割机。


Vycom Celtec premium signboard solutions are available in a variety of widths and colors, such as the 12mm gray used in the reception area sign for Celtec Print and Graphic Materials.

标识解决方案有多种宽度和颜色可供选择,该图就用的是12mm灰色制版材料做的“Celtec Print and Graphic Materials” 标识。

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